Offer to Purchase

Blog Series: Offers to Purchase

Whether you are working with a realtor or not (If you are, be sure to review our last post discussing listing agreements), in order to make your dream home your own you will have to submit an Offer to Purchase (commonly referred to as “Offer”).

Quite simply, an Offer is the contract that will guide and govern you through your real estate purchase.  By law, an Offer to purchase real estate must (1) be in writing; (2) describe with specificity the real estate you wish to purchase; (3) be signed by all parties – including both spouses if both will own the property.  Wis. Stat. § 706.02.  This rule is called the Statute of Frauds.

Most Offers drafted by attorneys and realtors will be on the standard form WB-11 approved by the Wisconsin Department of Regulation and Licensing.  This form contains several sections and deadlines, including those setting the purchase price (including earnest money), contingencies, title, closing and occupancy.

Purchase Price

Undoubtedly one of the first and most important discussions between a seller and a prospective buyer is the purchase price.  As discussed in this previous post, significant thought should go into the determination of the purchase price.

To demonstrate that the he or she is serious about the potential purchase, a buyer will commonly submit earnest money  within a few days of acceptance of the Offer.  Upon a successful closing, these funds are applied as part of the purchase price.  If for some reason the sale doesn’t close, the earnest money may either be returned to the buyer or retained by the seller (depending on the language in the Offer).


Offers routinely include several contingencies depending on the specifics of the transaction and the property.  More common contingencies include those for financing the transaction, inspection and appraisal of the property, and title.  Attorneys may draft additional, specific contingencies depending on your particular circumstance. Contingencies must include a completion deadline – calculated either from the acceptance of the Offer or backwards from the proposed closing date – as well as what actions must occur in order for it to be satisfied.  In the event a contingency is not satisfied or the deadline is missed, the parties may waive the contingency, extend the deadline for compliance, or, in some cases, terminate the transaction.  Multiple individual contingencies will be discussed in detail in future posts.

Closing and Occupancy

The Offer will set a deadline and place for the transaction to close and when the buyers will take occupancy.  Occupancy is usually provided immediately upon closing.

The above constitutes a simple overview of residential Offers to Purchase.  If you are looking to submit an Offer, or have already submitted an Offer but have questions or concerns, we strongly recommend that you meet with an experienced real estate attorney.  If you would like to meet with own of our experienced real estate attorneys, please contact our office at (608) 837-7386.

Disclaimer:  Please note that reading and/or commenting on this blog post does not create an attorney-client relationship with Eustice, Laffey, Sebranek & Auby, S.C. absent an express agreement between the firm and the client.  Contacting Eustice, Laffey, Sebranek & Auby, S.C. or any of its attorneys or employees via this website or via email does not create an attorney-client relationship.

We would be pleased to communicate with you by email. However, please note that if you communicate with us-through this website, via email, or otherwise-in connection with a matter for which we do not already represent you, your communication may not be treated as privileged or confidential and may be disclosed to other persons.

Blog Series: Buying or Selling a Home

Spring is in the air (well, sort of).  Traditionally, the coming of spring brings to Wisconsin a number of things: the ability to occasionally go outside without looking like the kid from A Christmas Story, renewed hope (err…optimism for the future) in our Milwaukee Brewers, and the start of the real estate season.  Spring and summer months are traditionally the busiest times of year for residential home transactions – and the times when our firm is contacted most frequently by prospective buyers, sellers, or their agents.

Whether you are a first time homebuyer, or a seasoned veteran, the process of buying and selling a home – replete with deadlines, stacks of paperwork, and legal and technical jargon – may be intimidating.  Fear not!  We are here to help.  Over the next few weeks, this Blog will discuss the home buying or selling process, including the following concepts:

  • Listing Agreements,
  • Why and When to Hire an Attorney,
  • The Offer to Purchase,
  • Contingencies,
  • Legal Title and Title Insurance, and
  • The Closing.

Along the way, we hope to not only inform you, our readers, of the basics, but also to discuss some common misconceptions and pitfalls, answer your questions, and show you ways that we can help.

We hope you will join us for this discussion.  If along the way you decide you would like to meet with one of our real estate attorneys, please contact us at (608) 837-7386.

Disclaimer:  Please note that reading and/or commenting on this blog post does not create an attorney-client relationship with Eustice, Laffey, Sebranek & Auby, S.C. absent an express agreement between the firm and the client.  Contacting Eustice, Laffey, Sebranek & Auby, S.C. or any of its attorneys or employees via this website or via email does not create an attorney-client relationship.

Title: What Exactly are you Buying?

The previous post in this series briefly discussed the “title” or “merchantable title” contingency.  Simply put, a contingency requiring that the seller provide “merchantable title” means that the property received by the buyer is not encumbered (read: limited) by any conditions or restrictions not acceptable to the buyer.  Typically, in order to provide proof of merchantable title, the seller will order and provide the buyer with a title insurance commitment.

A title insurance commitment will have two main parts, or schedules.  Schedule A typically lists the following information:

  • A commitment number;
  • The name of the proposed insured party (the buyer);
  • The policy limit.  Typically the purchase price;
  • The current owner (the seller); and
  • The legal description, tax parcel number and address of the property.

In reviewing Schedule A, it is important to verify each of the above items to make sure they match up with your understanding of the transaction (for instance, that the seller really can sell the property).

Schedule B is broken up into two subsections: Requirements and Exceptions.  As the name implies, Requirements section provides the reviewer with a list of items to be complied with before the title company will provide insurance.  These typically include satisfying any existing mortgages on the property, and the provision of a deed in proper form.

The aptly-named Exceptions section provides a list of items that will not be covered by the title insurance policy once it takes effect.  Some exceptions may be removed by providing the title company with certain proof, usually in the form of affidavits or statements from knowledgeable parties.  Some may not be removed.  It is vitally important that buyers review these exceptions carefully, and if you are unfamiliar with any of these items, this would be a great time to contact a real estate attorney.  If a buyer does not satisfy any listed requirements to get the exceptions removed before the closing, the exceptions become permanent.

Some of the most common encumbrances include:

  1. Real Estate Taxes.  You will want to ensure that all taxes are paid on the property before taking ownership.  If not, even if the taxes accrued prior to your ownership, the taxing agency may hold you responsible for their payment.
  2. Judgments.  If someone is sued, and they lose, the victorious party will sometimes obtain a judgment for an amount of money.  They can then “docket” this judgment against real estate owned by the losing party.  Once a judgment is docketed it can only be released by payment, voluntary removal or court order.
  3. Easements.  Easements are agreements to allow certain parties access or use of some or all of the property.  It is fairly common for a title commitment to include easements for utilities or municipal services if the property is located in a city, village, town, etc.  Some other examples include access easements allowing for access to the property or to waterways, or joint-driveway agreements.  You may or may not be able to remove an easement depending on the type of the easement and the circumstances involving the sale.
  4. Protective Declarations or Covenants.  If the property is located in a municipality, it may be subject to certain covenants or rules.  These rules may govern any of a number of items, from the size and location of buildings on the property, to acceptable paint colors (like this), and even the scope and types of acceptable landscaping.
  5. Unpaid Assessments or Condo Fees (if applicable).  If the property is part of a condominium, or if there has been recent work by the municipality, these charges may be linked to the property’s title.  As a buyer you will want to ensure that any unpaid assessments or condominium fees are paid prior to your taking ownership of the property.

These are just a few of the examples of items to be aware of with regards to the title of the property.  If you have any questions regarding whether your seller is providing merchantable title, or would like someone to assist you with your real estate transaction, feel free to contact one of our experienced real estate attorneys at (608) 837-7386.

P.S.  Go Brewers!

Contingencies: Providing Protection from Uncertainty

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So you’ve decided on a property.  It looks great. You think you can afford it.  And you are closing on your current home soon.  What could possibly go wrong?  Hopefully nothing. However, in the event the house isn’t as great as it looks, you can’t actually afford it, or your current house doesn’t sell, your Offer should address what happens.

A contingency is a future event that might occur, but is not certain.  Essentially, it is a paragraph in your Offer to deal with the uncertainty.

Contingencies have three basic parts:

  1. The action necessary to satisfy the contingency;
  2. A deadline for the action to occur; and
  3. Consequences if the action does not occur.

An example:

Buyer’s obligation to close this transaction are contingent upon Buyer closing on the sale of Buyer’s current home located at 100 Wilburn Road, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin by March 30, 2014.  If the sale does not close by March 30, 2014, Buyer may terminate this contract and Seller shall return the earnest money.

As set forth above, there are consequences if the contingency is not satisfied on or before the deadline.  A well-drafted contingency will clearly state these consequences so that everyone is aware ahead of the deadline.  Most often, the consequences involve the termination of the contract and a distribution of the earnest money.  A buyer or seller can always choose to waive any unsatisfied contingency.

The most common examples of contingencies in residential real estate transactions are those for financing, appraisal, inspection, and title.[1]  These “standard” contingencies are located on the form Offer.  Depending on the particulars of the transaction and the real estate, additional standard contingencies may be necessary.  These may be included on an addendum to the form Offer.


Most residential real estate purchases will involve some sort of financing.  A financing contingency will set forth not only the basic loan terms (amount, interest rate, term, etc.), but also the type of loan.  A financing contingency is satisfied when a buyer provides the seller with a loan commitment for a loan meeting the terms set forth in the Offer.


Unless you are intimately familiar with the home you are purchasing (and even if you are), an inspection is a vital part of any transaction.  It will inform you of the current condition and any defects in the house you are purchasing.  If defects are found, the inspection contingency will provide whether the Seller will be allowed to fix – or cure – the defects.  If so, the seller will have an agreed upon time to make any required repairs.  Disputes regarding inspection contingencies often arise as to who will actually conduct the repairs, and whether the defects were sufficiently cured.


An appraisal is a valuation of the real estate you are purchasing.  An appraisal contingency will require that the valuation state the home is worth at least the amount of the purchase price.  If the appraisal comes back below the purchase price, the Buyer will typically have a right to terminate the Offer.  In some cases, rather than lose the transaction, parties may agree to decrease the purchase price accordingly.  If, however, the appraisal comes back higher than the purchase price, the contingency is simply satisfied and no action is necessary.


When you are buying real estate, you will want to ensure that you are receiving merchantable title.  This means there are not unexpected easements, judgments or other liens, or other encumbrances preventing you from fully enjoying the real estate.  In order to satisfy this contingency, the seller will have to provide the buyer with a title insurance policy showing either (1) there are no issues on the title; or (2) if there are, they will be taken care of on or before the closing.

As stated above, this is by no means an exhaustive list of the possible or appropriate contingencies for any particular real estate transaction.  In order to determine which contingencies are appropriate for your transaction, we strongly recommend you meet with an experienced real estate attorney.  If you would like to meet with one of our experienced real estate attorneys, please contact us at (608) 837-7386.

[1] Note: This list is by no means exhaustive.  Entire books are written about contingencies for use by real estate lawyers in residential real estate transactions.